Something I've noticed that my students have trouble with is participial adjectives. Let's look at these adjectives and how we can use them correctly and naturally.
Participial adjectives are adjectives that come from the participial forms of verbs. They are often used to describe our feelings. Participial adjectives usually end with -ed or -ing (though there are some exceptions).
Here are a few examples:
excited / exciting
tired / tiring
confused / confusing
So, what is the difference between the two forms?
Let's start with the -ed form. The -ed form is used to show how someone feels. For example:
◆ I'm excited about going to America!
◆ He ran a 10-kilometer marathon today. He's really tired.
◆ His explanation was not clear, so I got really confused.
On the other hand, the -ing form is used to describe the cause or source of the feeling.